A sensor (English name: transducer/sensor) is a detection device that can feel the information being measured, and can transform the sensed information into electrical signals or other required forms of information output according to a certain rule to meet the information Requirements for transmission, processing, storage, display, recording and control.
The characteristics of sensors include: miniaturization, digitization, intelligence, multi-function, systemization, and networking. It is the first link to realize automatic detection and automatic control. The existence and development of sensors give objects the senses of touch, taste and smell, and make objects slowly become alive. According to its basic perception function, it is usually divided into ten categories: heat sensitive components, photosensitive components, gas sensitive components, force sensitive components, magnetic sensitive components, humidity sensitive components, acoustic components, radiation sensitive components, color sensitive components, and taste sensitive components.
In order to obtain information from the outside world, people must resort to sensory organs.
However, people’s own sensory organs are far from enough in the study of natural phenomena and laws and production activities. To adapt to this situation, sensors are needed. Therefore, it can be said that the sensor is an extension of the human five sense organs, also known as the electrical five sense features.
With the advent of the new technological revolution, the world has begun to enter the information age. In the process of using information, the first thing to be solved is to obtain accurate and reliable information, and sensors are the main way and means to obtain information in the fields of nature and production.
In modern industrial production, especially in automated production processes, various sensors are used to monitor and control various parameters in the production process, so that the equipment works in normal or optimal conditions, and the products reach the best quality. Therefore, it can be said that without many excellent sensors, modern production has lost its foundation.
In basic subject research, sensors have a more prominent position. The development of modern science and technology has entered many new fields: for example, it is necessary to observe the vast universe of thousands of light years at the macro level, the world of particles as small as fm at the micro level, and the evolution of celestial bodies over hundreds of thousands of years in the vertical view. , An instant response as short as s. In addition, various extreme technology researches, such as ultra-high temperature, ultra-low temperature, ultra-high pressure, ultra-high vacuum, ultra-strong magnetic field, ultra-weak magnetic field, etc., which play an important role in deepening material understanding, opening up new energy and new materials, have emerged. Obviously, it is impossible to obtain a large amount of information that cannot be directly obtained by the human senses without a suitable sensor. The obstacles to many basic scientific researches are, first of all, the difficulty in obtaining object information. The emergence of some new mechanisms and high-sensitivity detection sensors often leads to breakthroughs in this field. The development of some sensors is often the pioneer of the development of some marginal subjects.
Sensors have already penetrated into such a wide range of fields as industrial production, space development, ocean exploration, environmental protection, resource investigation, medical diagnosis, biological engineering, and even cultural relic protection. It is no exaggeration to say that from the vast space, to the vast ocean, to all kinds of complex engineering systems, almost every modern project is inseparable from a variety of sensors.
It can be seen that the important role of sensor technology in developing economy and promoting social progress is very obvious. Countries all over the world attach great importance to the development of this field. It is believed that in the near future, sensor technology will take a leap, reaching a new level commensurate with its important status.
The characteristics of sensors include: miniaturization, digitization, intelligence, multi-function, systemization, and networking. It not only promotes the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, but also may establish new industries, thus becoming the new economic growth of the 21st century. point. Miniaturization is based on the micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology and has been successfully applied to silicon devices to make silicon pressure sensors.